aquilaaquilonis (aquilaaquilonis) wrote,

Генетические новости из Индии

Обнародованы результаты нового исследования мужских хромосом населения Северной Индии.

Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes

Subjects and methods: A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped.

Results: Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only.

Conclusion: The results revealed that a substantial part of today's North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history.

Haplogroup J2* was observed 77 times. Its frequency was higher in the Shia (19.5%) and Sunni (15.4%) sample set than in the other three upper caste populations (6.3% in Bhargavas, 12.5% in Chaturvedis, and 11.9% in Brahmins).

Kivisild et al. (2003) also Figure 3. Migratory routes of paternal lineages of Indian upper caste and Muslim populations. reported the presence of a J2 clade and postulated that the origin of the J2 clade in India was probably Central Asia. Their hypothesis is based on eight populations taken from different parts of India. They observed the J2 clade in ~13% of the sample. The major Middle Eastern lineage present in our study was J2* with an average frequency of 13.8% and its frequency among Shias was the highest (19.5%). We suggest that the J2* lineage of the studied populations might be derived from the Middle East. This might have been due to two different episodes of migrations, one concomitant with the development and spread of agriculture ~8000-10 000 years ago (Renfrew 1989; Cavalli-Sforza 2005), and the other more recent migration being the arrival of Muslim rulers 1000 years ago.

Были собраны данные 560 мужчин из трех арийских каст (брахманов, чатурведи и бхаргав) и двух мусульманских течений (шиитов и суннитов). Обнаруженные Y-хромосомы разделились на три группы: (1) R1 и R2, принесенные в Индию арийскими завоевателями с северо-запада, (2) J2*, E1b1b1, G* и L*, имеющие ближневосточное происхождение, и (3) H1*, F*, C* и O*, имеющие местное индийское происхождение. Ближневосточная семитская гаплогруппа J2* в основном представлена у мусульман (19,5% у шиитов и 15,4% у суннитов), в то время как у индуистов из арийских каст ее заметно меньше (6,3% у бхаргав, 12,5% у чатурведи и 11,9% у брахманов). Хамитская гаплогруппа E1b1b1 была обнаружена только у мусульман-шиитов. Проникновение ближневосточных генов в Индию связано, по всей видимости, с двумя историческими событиями – распространением земледелия 10-8 тысяч лет назад и исламским завоеванием.

Основные выводы:
(1) Еще раз подтвердился исторический факт арийского завоевания Индии и происхождения ее высших каст от древних ариев.
(2) Выяснилось, что мусульмане Северной Индии отличаются от индуистов повышенным присутствием ближневосточных генов, что свидетельствует о соотношении семитской генетики с семитской религиозностью.
Tags: Род

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